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None of these expeditions could avoid the effects of the rise of the Mongols and Mamelukes in the Middle East - where armies increased in size and made the small Western units meaningless.

Who Were the Crusaders?

The eight thirteenth-century expeditions were:. Although the IHSP seeks to follow all applicable copyright law, Fordham University is not the institutional owner, and is not liable as the result of any legal action. Evolution of Crusader Privileges, Background Leo IV r. John VIII r. Letaldus of Micy: Journey of the Relics of St. Junianus , including a description of the Peace Council of Charroux in For pilgrimage to Jerusalem, see Ralph Glaber d.

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Plus Urban's Letter of December See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Pope Bl. The horrific attacks on Rhineland Jewry. The Crusaders at Constantinople: Collected Accounts.

Geary includes more copyrighted material than this extract. Accounts of The Gesta and Raymond d'Aguiliers. Albert of Aix: Chronicle. Ekkehard of Aura: Hierosolymita and World Chronicle. Anna Comnena after : The Alexiad. Anna Comnena after : The Alexiad [Books 10 and 11].


See also Catholic Encyclopedia: Anna Comnena. Gesta Francorum. Raymund d'Aguiliers: Historia Francorum qui ceperunt Iherusalem. William of Tyre c.

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William of Tyre's account extends here to the the s. Guillame de Tyr William of Tyre c. Books ditto Books ditto Books , the continuation, from the Recueil des historiens des croisades Chronique du Templier de Tyr , from Les gestes des Chiprois as edited by Gaston Raynaud. The Latin Kings of Jerusalem chronology.

  1. What Were the Crusades??
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  6. Christian Muslim Interaction [Geary John Of Jerusalems Knights of Malta. The group shortened their name to "The Crusaders" in , and adopted a jazz-funk style.

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    They also incorporated the bass guitar and electric guitar into their music. Bass guitarist Robert "Pops" Popwell and guitarist Larry Carlton joined the band, and featured on the group's albums throughout most of the s. With this new style came increased crossover appeal, and the group's recordings started to appear on the Billboard pop charts. The height of the group's commercial success came with 's Street Life , with Randy Crawford as featured singer, which peaked at No.

    Crusaders by Dan Jones: | Books

    In , following the release of their 28th album their ninth as The Crusaders , Henderson left the group to pursue a full-time career as a record producer. His departure created a void, permanently changing the character of the group. Another founding member, Hooper, left the group in , thus signaling the end to the group's most popular period. Three more albums were recorded in the mids; however by the s, The Crusaders, for the most part, had disbanded, with a comprehensive discography behind them. The album peaked at No.

    The group did not release any more albums during the decade, as Sample focused on a solo career. Henderson, who had left the group in , revived the "Jazz Crusaders" moniker despite Sample's objections for 's Happy Again. Ray Parker Jr.

    The Crusades: Causes & Goals

    Wayne Henderson died on April 5, Source: [5]. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the American jazz group.